National Seminar on Tribal Development
A tribal community in the Constitution of India is known as scheduled tribe (ST) and represents about 9 percent of the total population of India as per the census done in 2011. They are spread across all over the country residing mainly in the forest and hilly region. A few states of India such as Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh hold more than 70 percent of the total tribal population. The essential characteristics of these communities are primitive traits, geographical isolation, distinctive culture, shyness of contact with other communities and backwardness. Post-independence many programs, policies and laws have been introduced and implemented by the Central Government and the State Governments for the development of tribal community.